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Title: Reported distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States.

Authors: Dennis DT. Nekomoto TS. Victor JC. Paul WS. Piesman J.

Source: Journal of Medical Entomology. 35(5):629-38, 1998 Sep.

Abstract: Lyme disease, caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most frequently reported arthropod-borne disease in the United States. To develop a national map of the distribution of the vectors of B. burgdorferi to humans (Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls ticks), we sent questionnaires to acarologists, health officials, and Lyme disease researchers; surveyed the 1966-1996 MEDLINE data base; and reviewed 1907-1995 National Tick Collection data. Tick collection methods cited included flagging and dragging, deer surveys, small- and medium-sized mammal surveys, CO2 baiting, and receipt of tick submissions. A total of 1,058 unique, county-specific I. scapularis and I. pacificus records was obtained. Tick populations were classified as "reported" (< 6 ticks and 1 life stage identified) or "established" (> or = 6 ticks or > 1 life stage identified). Established populations of I. scapularis were identified in 396 counties in 32 states in the eastern and central United States, whereas established populations of I. pacificus were found in 90 counties in 5 western states. Counties with established populations were most concentrated in the northeastern, upper northcentral, and west-coastal states but were also clustered in southeastern and Gulf-coastal states. A less concentrated distribution was found in the south-central states. Reports were notably missing from all but a few counties in Ohio, West Virginia, western Virginia and North Carolina, Kentucky, and Tennessee. They were absent in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain regions and from large areas of western states east of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada cordilleras. These data are useful for identifying areas of Lyme disease risk, for targeting Lyme disease prevention strategies, and for monitoring trends in spatial distribution of Lyme disease vector ticks.

Authors: Durden LA. Wilson N.

Title: Parasitic and phoretic arthropods of sylvatic and commensal white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in central Tennessee, with notes on Lyme disease.

Source: Journal of Parasitology. 77(2):219-23, 1991 Apr.

Abstract: Sixteen species of parasitic or phoretic arthropods were collected from 56 white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, live-trapped in central Tennessee from April through November 1987. Arthropod infestation was compared for mice taken from sylvatic (woodland) versus commensal (household) habitats. Three species were recorded from hosts in both habitats: the sucking louse Hoplopleura hesperomydis, the flea Epitedia wenmanni, and the laelapid mite Androlaelaps casalis. Twelve of the 13 remaining arthropod species were taken only from mice trapped in woodland whereas the phoretic glycyphagid mite Glycyphagus hypudaei was collected only from commensal mice. Arthropod faunas on commensal hosts clearly were impoverished. The 12 additional arthropod species recorded from the woodland mice consisted of 1 nidicolous beetle, Leptinus orientamericanus; 1 bot, Cuterebra fontinella; 3 fleas, Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes, Orchopeas leucopus and Peromyscopsylla scotti; 1 tick, Dermacentor variabilis; 2 mesostigmatid mites, Androlaelaps fahrenholzi and Ornithonyssus bacoti; 3 chiggers, Comatacarus americanus, Euschoengastia peromysci, and Leptotrombidium peromysci; and 1 undescribed pygmephorid mite of the genus Pygmephorus. Two nymphal and 100 larval D. variabilis were examined for spirochetes and found to be uninfected.