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Title: Lyme disease.

Authors: Forks TP.

Source: Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association. 40(10):339-42, 1999 Oct.

Title: Geographic survey of vector ticks (Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus) for infection with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.

Authors: Piesman J. Clark KL. Dolan MC. Happ CM. Burkot TR.

Source: Journal of Vector Ecology. 24(1):91-8, 1999 Jun.

Populations of adult Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus, the two principal vectors of Lyme disease spirochetes in the United States, were collected from 17 sites in 12 states. Female ticks were fed on experimental rabbits; ticks and rabbits were subsequently examined for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Fourteen rabbits were exposed to I. scapularis ticks from the northeastern states of Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Maryland; all 14 rabbits became infected with B. burgdorferi. A total of 165/226 (73%) of these northeastern ticks was infected. Similarly, ticks from the midwestern states of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota transmitted infection to all three exposed rabbits; 29/51 (57%) of these midwestern I. scapularis were infected. In marked contrast, none of the 12 rabbits exposed to I. scapularis ticks from the southeastern states of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Mississippi acquired infection with B. burgdorferi, and 0/284 (0%) of these ticks contained spirochetes. Four rabbits were exposed to I. pacificus collected from one location in California; 2/4 of these rabbits acquired infection and 2/57 (4%) of the I. pacificus were infected with B. burgdorferi. The antigenic profiles of all 58 strains tested were consistent with an identity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The availability of a human Lyme disease vaccine adds urgency to our efforts to calculate the ecological transmission risk throughout the United States, as an aid to the judicious use of such a vaccine.

Title: Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in rodents in the eastern and southern United States.

Authors: Magnarelli LA. Oliver JH Jr. Hutcheson HJ. Boone JL. Anderson JF.

Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 30(6):1449-52, 1992 Jun.

Abstract: Serologic studies were conducted to determine whether white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) contained serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays detected antibodies to this spirochete in 35.7 and 27.3% of 56 P. leucopus and 535 P. gossypinus serum samples, respectively, collected in Connecticut, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi. Antibody titers ranged from 1:160 to greater than or equal to 1:40,960. On the basis of adsorption tests, the antibodies detected appeared to be specific to Borrelia spirochetes. Seropositive rodents in the eastern and southern United States, areas where human cases of Lyme borreliosis have been reported, indicate a widespread geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi or a closely related spirochete.